Following the conflict with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the number of people engaged in agriculture appears to have declined in districts where displaced people have returned to their areas of origin. This analysis brief looks to gain insight into the challenges faced by returnees working in agriculture after the conflict. It considers the degree to which conflict-, economic-, and climate-related factors play a role in the decline of agriculture as a livelihood, and the implications of this change for sustainable reintegration.
View and download the Arabic version of THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT, CLIMATE AND THE ECONOMY ON AGRICULTURE IN DISTRICTS OF RETURN
View and download the Kurdish version of THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT, CLIMATE AND THE ECONOMY ON AGRICULTURE IN DISTRICTS OF RETURN
Within the top 14 districts of return in Iraq, conditions and perceptions related to reintegration of internally displaced persons (IDPs) do not appear to vary significantly between women and men or between younger and older respondents. Rather, the gender of the head of household is a more critical factor, influencing reintegration outcomes from household living conditions to individual perceptions. Female-headed households, as could be expected, tended to show relatively worse outcomes. The analysis here details the differences in household-level characteristics in terms of conflict experiences, housing, and socio-economic situations. It also examines the individual perceptions of heads of household on safety, security, and social cohesion, and what implications these differences have on durable reintegration.
View and download the Arabic version of POVERTY & PRECARITY: A COMPARISON OF FEMALE- AND MALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN DISTRICTS OF RETURN
View and download the Kurdish version of POVERTY & PRECARITY: A COMPARISON OF FEMALE- AND MALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN DISTRICTS OF RETURN
This report measures the reintegration of the Iraqi returnees across 14 districts in Iraq. The suitability of their return is measured through eighth criteria and compared to a set of data from 2012 (when applicable). The eight criteria measured are: Safety And Security, Adequate Standard of Living, Access to Livelihoods and Economic Security, Restitution and Protection of Housing, Land and Property, Personal Documentation, Family Reunification, Participation in Public Affairs, and Legal Remedies and Justice.
Key Findings: Reimagining Reintegration
Between 2014 and 2017, the conflict with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) resulted in the internal displacement of over one million families. These families fled from their homes in eight of Iraq’s north and central governorates, seeking safety across each of the country’s 18 governorates. Across the country, this group of returnees face significant challenges with reintegrating into their area of origin, especially related to livelihoods and economic security. This report draws on secondary data to examine these challenges in line with the Expert Group on IDP Statistics (EGRIS). It also highlights key differences in the rates at which returnees face these challenges, with comparative analysis between 2020 and 2021 also included.
View and download arabic version of OBSTACLES TO RETURNEE REINTEGRATION IN IRAQ: LIVELIHOODS AND ECONOMIC SECURITY
View and download kurdish version of OBSTACLES TO RETURNEE REINTEGRATION IN IRAQ: LIVELIHOODS AND ECONOMIC SECURITY
In Iraq, over one million families became displaced during the period of conflict with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) between 2014 and 2017. Since the Government of Iraq declared victory over ISIL in 2017, 80 per cent of all families who became displaced have returned to their area of origin. However, returnees face persistent challenges in reintegrating into their area of origin – especially related to safety, security and social relations. This report draws on secondary data sources to examine these reintegration challenges in line with the Expert Group on IDP Statistics (EGRIS). It also highlights where these challenges are most prevalent across the country. Comparative analysis of conditions in return locations between October 2020 and September 2021 is also included.
View and download arabic version of OBSTACLES TO RETURNEE REINTEGRATION IN IRAQ: SAFETY, SECURITY AND SOCIAL RELATIONS
View and download kurdish version of OBSTACLES TO RETURNEE REINTEGRATION IN IRAQ: SAFETY, SECURITY AND SOCIAL RELATIONS
As of December 2020, Iraq has witnessed the return of 4.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) to their places of origin in the aftermath of the ISIL conflict. This is a significant returnee population and, while the movement home is a first step toward reintegration, it is not necessarily an indication of longer-term sustainability per se.
The analysis in this report, by IOM Iraq, the Returns Working Group (RWG), and Social Inquiry, builds upon on and complements previous assessments on durable solutions, mainly with regards to obstacles to return as well as progress toward local integration for IDPs. The focus here is specifically on returnees and obstacles to their sustainable reintegration upon return. The criteria used to examine returnee advancement towards reintegration is based on the International Recommendations for IDP Statistics indicators framework developed by the Expert Group on Refugee and IDP Statistics (EGRIS) in 2020.